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If this doesn't occur, their performance is reduced and they may even break. Solar arrays, which are employed to recharge batteries, are directly exposed to the solar heat flux, and they need to be insulated from the earth's surface irradiation.

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A configuration based on an open-cell polyimide foam has also been recently proposed [2]. Using polyimide foams in TCSs looks very attractive in terms of costs, weight and assembling.

Thermal control system of Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer | SpringerLink

An innovative thermal analysis of the above cited TCS configurations is carried out in this paper, by solving the porous media energy equation, under the assumption of Local Thermal Equilibrium LTE between the two phases. Radiation effects through the solar array are also considered by using the Rosseland approximation. Finally, since the weight plays an important role in aerospace applications, weights of the three TCS configurations are compared.

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The list of (historical and current) launch vehicle user manuals

Crossref Google Scholar. Pattan, B.

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Academic Lecture:. Academic Tutorial:.

Thermal design of spacecraft solar arrays using a polyimide foam

Academic Practical:. Semester Details: Electives. Subject Code:. Subject Name:. A construction which gives higher performance is composed of Mylar film metalized with aluminum or gold on both sides.

These have silk or Dacron net as the low-conductance spacers. All of these forms are minimized in different ways. Interposing as many enclosing reflective surfaces metallized sheets as is practically possible between the object being insulated and its surroundings minimizes radiative heat transfer. One can minimize solid conduction heat transfer by minimizing the density of the low-conductance spacers between the reflective surfaces and making the blanket "fluffy" in order to minimize contact between layers.

We can experimentally derive both the values for steady state heat transfer. In satellite applications, the MLI is full of air at launch time. As the rocket ascends through the atmosphere, this air should be able to escape without damaging the blanket.

Therefore, holes or perforations are required in the layers, even though this has an associated reduction in effectiveness. MLI blankets are traditionally constructed with sewing technology.

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The layers are cut, then stacked on top of each other, and finally sewn together at the edges. Seams and gaps in the insulation are the cause of most of the heat leakages through MLI blankets. A new method is being developed to use polyetheretherketone PEEK tag pins similar to plastic hooks used to attach price tags to garments to fix the film layers in place instead of sewing to improve the thermal performance.

Satellites may also use MLI as a first protection against dust impacts. A satellite or a space station can have a variety of surface finishes because of the difference in thermal requirements from region to region. Thermal coatings and paints must be compatible with the environment. They must also be resistant to both radiation and atomic oxygen that they will be constantly exposed to.

Different types of finishes are used to provide various degrees of thermal control for on-board equipment. An example of this are radiators that use high emissivity and low absorptivity coatings to help radiate excess heat to space. This proposed technology is expected to enable efficient thermal control by maintaining a constant temperature heat sink or source for a wide range of electronic components in rapidly changing thermal environments. The Phase Change Material panel is being designed as a lightweight and flexible component. Even then, it will have high thermal capacity. Thus, it will require less mass and volume than presently used carbon-fiber and aluminum honeycomb composite panels.