This trend still exists today. The main principle of the division of criminal influence between organized criminal groups is a site-territorial principle as groups take control of a region, industrial or commercial property, prisons, etc. To do this, they appoint the so-called polozhentsy and watchers, who are authorized representatives of the organized criminal groups Zhernovoy and Sukharenko, Our survey is confirmed by the modern American experience indicating the monopoly of robberies and murders in the U. Chicago by representatives of Italian Mafia, preserved and acting quite boldly Marshall, In some cases, this process extends to the territory of neighboring countries.
One of the nearest neighbors of Kazakhstan is China, with its centuries-old traditions of triads Lo, Globalization of international trade with the Celestial Empire necessitates criminal manifestations. Most likely, the triads consider Kazakhstan as a convenient base for their operations. It is possible that now closer links are forming between their representatives and the Kazakh criminal groups operating at customs Khorgos, friendship as well as in the Chinese territory, up to Urumqi. As a result of an agreement, the control can be established between them, over official and contraband transportation flows of consumer goods from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, including the resolution of problematic issues in customs from both sides.
Our forecasts are confirmed by recent studies of Chinese scientists claiming that the trend of explicit self-expansion of Chinese and foreign criminal organizations is inevitable and sooner or later transnational criminal organizations will be a serious problem Bingsong, Accordingly, the main goal of all criminal groups, including ethnic Kurdish, Chechen-Ingush and others is to obtain the greatest possible profit.
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As seen above, for this purpose they try to move the center of gravity of their criminal activities into the economic sphere which is traditionally measured by the state and society as a less painful compared with the murders and mercenary violent crimes. Therefore, in the regions with developed infrastructure of organized crime as a rule, the level of violent crime is low.
In a certain sense, it performs law enforcement functions. Researchers face the need to explore the factors, affecting ethnic groups to unite in committing various criminal acts of organized nature, in the future as described in the American scientific journals Miller and Gibson, In foreign criminological literature, there exists a noteworthy point of view of the interdependence of economic indicators in the country and criminal activity; it is argued that poor economic conditions are an incentive to commit a crime.
During the recession, people tend to commit crimes to increase their income.
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In the economic recovery, this hypothesis works in reverse: the possibility to commit a crime declines when goods and services are wide available Detotto and Otranto, Resonant crimes occurring on its territory are unfavorable for the developed organized crime, because they interfere easy moneymaking. Another example of D. A similar incident took place in the city of Karaganda in February , when in one of the cafes an ordinary showdown of two gangs ended with an armed conflict with the use of automatic weapons and the death of several people.
Numerous law enforcement officers were involved in disclosing this resonant crime including those of the central apparatus of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In result of the massive inquiries of the groups members, their criminal connections in various regions of the country were identified as well as sources of financing and money laundering.
Luis Gustavo Nardin
Then in order to close the case faster, the criminals submitted to the law enforcement agencies information concerning the persons related to the shootout and places of weapons storage MFARK, Thus, in the results of their study, T. Schelling, J. Buchanan and several other scientists provide important idea for law enforcement, the possibility to use or redirect the organized crime on socially useful purposes. This study allows us to draw some conclusions concerning both the predictive estimates and measures required to correct the anti-crime policies.
It is believe that in the foreseeable future the organized crime will keep certain growth trend. Even if certain fluctuations down will occur, it will not imply the regress in the opposite direction. Accordingly, in order to optimize the size of the social consequences price of the organized crime, the relevant authorities should be redirected from the policy of merciless war to a reasonable containment within acceptable and economically viable borders. It seems that for this purpose it is necessary to implement a set of strategic enforcement measures:.
And how many young people have been lost without timely protecting it from the entry into organized criminal activity, is unknown for certain because of the known latency of crime in general and its organized forms, in particular.
At the same time, the increase in spending on law enforcement, including the fight against organized crime, gives positive results when over U. Undoubtedly, it is quite difficult to implement the proposed integrated scheme. Moreover, the case is not in the material and financial costs so much as there would not be needed many of them. The hardest thing will be to change the consciousness inertia of the majority of the law enforcement officers and the inhabitants that are seamlessly fused with the idea of a war against the organized crime to the bitter end, although a long-term foreign and domestic experience clearly demonstrates its futility and most importantly, economical infeasibility.
Continuation of such a strategy is like a fairy tale of the dragon that in return of a severed head immediately grows a new one or maybe even two or more. Apparently, if the state and society are keen to optimize the volume of the organized crime and therefore its social consequences price , another way than proposed, does not exist. Moreover, such an approach in the medium and long-term prospect will greatly reduce the cost of the budget for law enforcement which is important in the current economic environment. Abenov, M.
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