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Raffa conducts research on insects affecting forest-resource management, plant-insect interactions, insect ecology, population dynamics, and biological control. He is also adjunct professor in the department of forest ecology and management. He has researched chemical defenses of trees against insects and fungi, tri-trophic interactions, roles of microorganisms in mediating plantinsect interactions, insect-pheromone ecology, and deployment strategies for transgenic plants.

Raffa formerly worked as section research biologist at E. Dupont and Company, where he investigated insecticide-resistance management, insecticide synergists, and behavioral manipulation of insects using natural products.

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Prior to founding Paradigm Genetics in , Dr. Ryals was the head of agricultural biotechnology research for Ciba-Geigy Corporation and Novartis, Inc. His research focus has been on the molecular biology of plant-pathogen interactions, and in particular, in the field of systemic acquired resistance in plants. He has a broad background in analytical chemistry of pesticides, industrial byproducts and naturally occurring toxicants; ecological chemistry of plant-derived poisons; modeling for chemical environmental fate; trace organic analysis; and origin and fate of trace organics in the atmosphere, including pesticides.

In previous positions, Seiber worked for Dow Chemical Company and chaired the department of environmental toxicology at the University of California. He directs the agricultural-biotechnology program, which is aimed at finding new pesticide target sites and identifying genes associated with output traits in major crops. Before to becoming director, Shaner was a senior research fellow for herbicide discovery, and directed basic research in plant biochemistry, plant physiology, and plant-chemical-environment interactions.

He has published on the mode of action of imidazolinone herbicides, biochemistry of resistance development, and selection and utility of herbicide-resistant crops. He chairs the Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, an international, intercompany committee. Before to his position at American Cyanamide, Shaner was an assistant professor at the University of California, Riverside.

He received his PhD in plant physiology at the University of Illinois. He also serves as director of the Center for Sustainable Resource Development.

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Zilberman has diverse research interests: economics of technological change, economics of natural resources, microeconomic theory, and agricultural and nutrition policy. Zilberman has published numerous articles on topics of water quality in irrigated agriculture, pollution prevention, financial incentives and pesticide use, biotechnology and precision agriculture. Zilberman researched market incentives to control environmental problems for his PhD degree in agricultural economics at the University of California, Berkeley.

Zilberman participated in a Research Council workshop on precision agriculture affiliated with the Committee on Assessing Crop Yield. Although chemical pesticides safeguard crops and improve farm productivity, they are increasingly feared for their potentially dangerous residues and their effects on ecosystems.


The Future Role of Pesticides explores the role of chemical pesticides in the decade ahead and identifies the most promising opportunities for increasing the benefits and reducing the risks of pesticide use. This book presents clear overviews of key factors in chemical pesticide use, including:. With a model and working examples, this book offers guidance on how to assess various pest control strategies available to today's agriculturist. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

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Environmental Fate and Behaviour

Looking for other ways to read this? No thanks. This thesis seeks to contribute to narrowing the North-South knowledge divide by coupling monitoring data with dynamic multimedia models to investigate the environmental fate and transport of pesticides used for health-care and agricultural purposes in the Tropics. The research presented herein capitalizes on the existing knowledge base in the South on chemical behavior, including grey literature and the field experience of Southern collaborators, and builds up on it through suitable approaches developed in the North, namely multimedia models.

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The first case study presented in this thesis addresses the cycling of a legacy pesticide used for malaria vector control in a remote community in the Brazilian Amazon, which relies on local sources of water and food. In Brazil, DDT was officially used for indoor residual spraying IRS against malaria and leishmaniasis from the s up to a ban in To investigate the fate of DDT and its transformation products in Puruzinho and to assess environmental exposure, soil and sediment measurements were conducted from and a dynamic multimedia floodplain model was developed.

The daily-resolved model takes into account the variable lake water levels, rainfall, and changes in emissions patterns based on legislation. This comparison and the availability of DDT stockpiles in the region suggest that post-ban DDT emissions are very likely, so two additional scenarios were tested: one assuming DDT use for IRS after a malaria upsurge, and another assuming its use against leishmaniasis and termites.

The model-measurement agreement in soils suggests that the fractions of formation and half-lives used to describe degradation in soil were adequate in the model. Pesticide monitoring programs in Europe and the United States, the main importers of Costa Rican bananas, show that residues in bananas are not of concern to consumer health.

However, in banana-producing regions of Costa Rica, located mainly on the Caribbean Coast, pesticides have repeatedly been detected in rivers, canals, and wetlands, at levels associated with negative acute and chronic effects on aquatic organisms. Pesticide concentrations above USEPA recommendations for chronic exposure have also been detected in children and pregnant women living in the vicinity of banana plantations.

Most studies on pesticide residues in the Costa Rican environment are scattered in time and space, which prevents adequate exposure assessments given the variable pesticide use patterns and characteristic pesticide pulses observed in surface waters.

The model estimates concentrations of three representative chemicals—the herbicide diuron, the nematicide ethoprofos, and the fungicide epoxiconazole—in water, air, soil, sediments, and banana plants. Model results show highly variable concentrations in water, with peaks that are driven by rainfall and emissions and that sometimes exceed thresholds for ecosystem health. Conversely, concentrations in the fruit remain below the EU and US maximum residue limits. Model improvements to better estimate pesticide concentrations include fine-tuning sediment dynamics and incorporating the impact of adjuvants on the properties of active ingredients.

The models developed here have a flexible design, so additional processes and compartments can be incorporated as new insights are gained into pesticide partitioning, degradation, and mass transfer processes in the Tropics, perhaps in response to the research calls within this thesis.

Upon further validation, the models can be used to evaluate the environmental fate of pesticides proposed as alternatives and of problematic degradation products of existing chemicals. They can also be used to assess environmental exposure to pesticides that have not been measured in the environment due to analytical limitations, yet are widely used, such as fungicide mancozeb in banana cultivation.

It is important to note that even though multimedia models are valuable decision support tools for identifying opportunities to reduce pesticide exposure and transfer to non-target sites, they should complement pesticide safe handling and use practices suitable for the Tropics, and strategies to minimize pesticide use such as integrated pest management.